Smith, G. (2020) Z-FDM : Impedance spectroscopy enhanced freeze drying microscopy. Podium presentation at 2nd Annual Pharmaceutical Lyophilization Summit 12-13 Feb 2020, Berlin
2nd Annual Pharmaceutical Lyophilization Summit
February 12-13, 2020 | Berlin, Germany
NH Collection Berlin Friedrichstrasse
This presentation demonstrates the application in freeze-drying of a single analytical instrument (Z-FDM) combining impedance (Z) spectroscopy with freeze-drying microscopy (FDM). The electrical impedance spectra and visual appearance of frozen solutions were analysed with an inter-digitated micro-electrode array placed on a freeze-drying microscope stage. The critical process parameters of ice growth, sublimation drying rate and end-point were studied using Z-FDM technique in addition to observing the collapse temperature. This early study indicates that by using this combined approach it is possible to obtain further information that can be obtained currently by two separate instruments.